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Android分區(安卓系統分割槽)的認識

除非你的Android手機只是用來通話,簡訊,上網和基本的應用程式,否則你應該知道Android系統使用幾多個分區(Android Partition),組織裝置上的檔案文件和資料夾。每個分割槽的裝置的功能有顯著作用,但不是很多Android使用者都知道每個分區其內容的意義。在本指南中,我們將帶您參觀Android的分割槽,它們包含了什麼,有什麼方法可以修改其內容可能產生的後果。

Unless you have been using your Android phone just for calls, SMS, browsing and basic apps, you should know that Android uses several partitions to organize files and folders on the device. Each of these partitions has a distinct role in the functionality of the device, but not many Android users know the significance of each partition and its contents. In this guide, we will take you on a tour of Android partitions, what they contain and what can be the possible consequences of modifying their content.

Android手機和平板的內部存儲分區清單:

/boot

/system

/recovery

/data

/cache

/misc

還有 SD card 分區:

/sdcard

/sd-ext

請注意只有「/sdcard」是所有Android設備都有的,而「/sd-ext」只在某些設備上可以看到。現在讓我們分別去分析這些分區的內容和功能。

Let’s start with a list of standard internal memory partitions on Android phones and tablets.

These are:

/boot

/system

/recovery

/data

/cache

/misc

In addition, there are the SD card partitions.

/sdcard

/sd-ext

Note that only /sdcard is found in all Android devices and the rest are present only in select devices. Let’s now take a look at the purpose and contents of each of these partitions.

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1./boot

這個分區上有Android的引導程式,包括內核和記憶體操作程式。沒有這個分區設備就不能被引導。恢復系統的時候會刪除(Delete)這個分區,並且必須重新安裝引導程式和ROM才能重啟系統。

/boot” This is the partition that enables the phone to boot, as the name suggests. It includes the kernel and the ramdisk. Without this partition, the device will simply not be able to boot. Wiping this partition from recovery should only be done if absolutely required and once done, the device must NOT be rebooted before installing a new one, which can be done by installing a ROM that includes a /boot partition.

2./system

這個分區上是除了內核和記憶體操作之外的整個作業系統。裡面包含Android使用者介面和預先安裝的系統應用程式。刪除了這個分區就會刪掉Andorid系統,所以你需要進入recovery模式或者bootloader模式去安裝一個新的ROM。

/system” This partition basically contains the entire operating system, other than the kernel and the ramdisk. This includes the Android user interface as well as all the system applications that come pre-installed on the device. Wiping this partition will remove Android from the device without rendering it unbootable, and you will still be able to put the phone into recovery or bootloader mode to install a new ROM.

3./recovery

recovery分區被認為是另一個啟動分區,你可以啟動設備進入Recovery控制台去執行高級的系統恢復和管理操作。

/recovery” The recovery partition can be considered as an alternative boot partition that lets you boot the device into a recovery console for performing advanced recovery and maintenance operations on it. To learn more about this partition and its contents, see the ‘About Android Recovery’ section of our guide to ClockworkMod recovery.

4./data

這個分區儲存著用戶的所有數據。通訊錄、簡訊、設置和你安裝的APPs都在這個分區上。刪除這個分區相當於恢復出廠設置,當你第一次啟動設備的時候或者在安裝了官方或者客戶的ROM之後,系統會自動重建這個分區。當你執行恢復出廠設備時,就是在刪除這個分區。

/data” Also called userdata, the data partition contains the user’s data – this is where your contacts, messages, settings and apps that you have installed go. Wiping this partition essentially performs a factory reset on your device, restoring it to the way it was when you first booted it, or the way it was after the last official or custom ROM installation. When you perform a wipe data/factory reset from recovery, it is this partition that you are wiping.

5./cache

這個分區是Android系統存儲頻繁存取的數據和APP的地方(簡稱:緩存數據及資料庫 / Data log)。刪除這個分區不影響你的個人數據,當你繼續使用設備時,被刪除的數據就會自動被創建。

/cache” This is the partition where Android stores frequently accessed data and app components. Wiping the cache doesn’t effect your personal data but simply gets rid of the existing data there, which gets automatically rebuilt as you continue using the device.

6./misc

這個分區包含各種複雜的類似於on/off的系統設置。這些設置可能是USB配置和某些硬體配置資訊。這是一個重要的分區,如果該分區損壞或者丟失,設備的功能可能就工作不正常。

/misc” This partition contains miscellaneous system settings in form of on/off switches. These settings may include CID (Carrier or Region ID), USB configuration and certain hardware settings etc. This is an important partition and if it is corrupt or missing, several of the device’s features will will not function normally.

7./sdcard

這個分區不是內部的存儲區,而是SD card。這是你個人存儲大檔案的地方,存儲多媒體文件、文檔、ROM檔等等。如果你備份了這個分區上的檔案,那麼刪除這個分區將會很安全。不過!請注意一些使用者安裝的APPs會存儲數據和設置參數到SD card上,刪除這個分區會一併刪掉這些數據。

/sdcard” This is not a partition on the internal memory of the device but rather the SD card. In terms of usage, this is your storage space to use as you see fit, to store your media, documents, ROMs etc. on it. Wiping it is perfectly safe as long as you backup all the data you require from it, to your computer first. Though several user-installed apps save their data and settings on the SD card and wiping this partition will make you lose all that data.

On devices with both an internal and an external SD card – devices like the Samsung Galaxy S and several tablets – the /sdcard partition is always used to refer to the internal SD card. For the external SD card – if present – an alternative partition is used, which differs from device to device. In case of Samsung Galaxy S series devices, it is /sdcard/sd while in many other devices, it is /sdcard2. Unlike /sdcard, no system or app data whatsoever is stored automatically on this external SD card and everything present on it has been added there by the user. You can safely wipe it after backing up any data from it that you need to save.

8./sd-ext

這個分區不是Android設備的標準分區,但是在一些定制客戶ROM的情況下變得很流行。

/sd-ext” This is not a standard Android partition, but has become popular in the custom ROM scene. It is basically an additional partition on your SD card that acts as the /data partition when used with certain ROMs that have special features called APP2SD+ or data2ext enabled. It is especially useful on devices with little internal memory allotted to the /data partition. Thus, users who want to install more programs than the internal memory allows can make this partition and use it with a custom ROM that supports this feature, to get additional storage for installing their apps. Wiping this partition is essentially the same as wiping the /data partition – you lose your contacts, SMS, market apps and settings.

以上我們總結了Android各個分區的功能。當你安裝ROM時或者系統詢問你要刪除某個分區時,你就會準確地知道哪些會丟失哪些不會丟失,因此你就會去備份那些將會丟失的檔案文件。

With this, we conclude our tour of Android partitions. Now whenever you install a ROM or mod that requires you to wipe certain partitions before the installation, you should be in a better position to know what you’re losing and what not and thus, you’ll know what to backup and what not.

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